1. You write for yourself.
2. You write with an audience/editor in mind.
3. You write complete stories, except for some technical aspects.
4. You work professionally.

There are more stages, but after this, the writer no longer needs help.

Getting out of the first stage is a matter of doing; getting out of the second and third stages is a matter of technique.

Learning to see, hear, remember, feel, in short, working with the subconscious is the key to this.


When you have an idea, you need to shape it:
Specify – a certain person, in a certain place, under certain circumstances (empathize with your character).

Make the story more complex by introducing a second character or an event or circumstance that makes the continuation uncertain and therefore more exciting. A third character ensures that the plot is not simple. Often, conflicts between people who are on the same side are more interesting than a direct conflict between enemies.

Write about what you know, for example, don’t write about places you’ve never been to or feelings you don’t have (?).
Remember the limitations. An impoverished character, for example, cannot suddenly start acting like a big spender, and the setting and circumstances cannot change arbitrarily.

Characters, space, circumstances, and emotions are the four focal points of every story; even abstract ones.

An important separate point to consider is the theme: you don’t have to start with it because it can be stifling. It can naturally emerge from characters, space, circumstances, and emotions in combination with time and perspective factors; there are also counterexamples.

A story is an attempt at communication. ” ” can take different forms (points of view). ” ” is a mechanism that should not be noticed.

STRUCTURE (the skeleton that holds a story together) is an arrangement of parts that should form a well-functioning whole; a network of interconnected elements.

A structure can also take various forms, it can be easy or difficult, but it roughly comes down to beginning – bridge (intrigue) – conclusion. This can be intricately woven together according to your own insight, and it can even be used interchangeably. The important thing is that all story elements are related to each other; no part should be arbitrary or irrelevant. The tension must remain from beginning to end, if it disappears earlier, it’s bad.

A story includes 2 types of events: the natural sequence is built upon getting up, having breakfast, working, etc., and the dramatic sequence is built solely on those events that form a continuous and meaningful story.
The situation or circumstances form a cross-section of the story, with the initial situation forming the beginning of the story. From there, it goes in the desired or undesired direction, and the dramatic situation is not stable.

Everything and everyone in this world tends toward balance, which makes ‘conflict’ about the most important aspect of a story. It is something that works against the characters and that they have to overcome. -> Don’t make it too easy for yourself.

The plot is a series of complications that create tension in a story, expectations are built, and in building this skeleton, you need 5 bones:

1. A credible protagonist whom the reader can identify with.
2. Their urgent/difficult problem.
3. Their attempts to solve it that fail and make the situation even more hopeless.
4. The crisis, their last chance to overcome the problems.
5. The resolution, brought about by themselves (does not necessarily have to be a happy ending). You can also reverse this, there are many variations possible.

An unlimited number of stories can be written because the possible combinations of old forms are never exhausted, and new forms are constantly being found.

Common mistakes and their treatment:

No storyline/direction – give the protagonist (better) motivation. Confusing story – limit the number of characters. Weak story – no intriguing problem, come up with something else. Disappointing ending – write a new story/intrigue.


Who Why What about Where When

A writer must make it clear that they know the characters very well and must let the reader feel something for the characters: sympathy, antipathy, not indifference.

Write a short biographical sketch. Create a description. Write a scene that brings out the typical characteristics. Write an – not to be used – event from their life. Write the other characters in the same way.
Motives must be so serious and compelling that they correspond to the risks the characters take and the difficulties they cause themselves and others. Mundane motives are not credible.

The subject of a story is different from what the story is about on the surface.

Spatial description is location, but also ambiance, atmosphere, etc. ” ” is not only a characterization of place but also a characterization of the characters.

• Do not go into too much detail –

Time is reflected in, for example, transportation, work, clothing, leisure activities, etc.

The beginning of a story should generate interest/curiosity in the above in about 500 words.

A story can be told from different perspectives, from different narrative points of view:

anonymous narrative point of view: first-person outside the action – first-person/minor – character first-person/protagonist.

objective recording viewpoint: when what everyone can see is shown, and the narrative point of view does not add personal coloring or commentary.

omniscient viewpoint: from a standpoint that can be inside or outside the characters, the narrator knows everything (including the future).

personal viewpoint: told only from what the protagonist thinks, feels, perceives, etc. the view of the action from a person (who cannot see into the future). Provides clear identification.

Multiple viewpoints: Perspective shifts from one first-person narrator to another, but it is not omniscient.

Changing viewpoints: Is a beginner’s mistake.
Mixed viewpoint: Omniscient viewpoint and personal perspective can be used interchangeably.

Only the third person makes the gender clear; for others, this must be made clear in another way.

Be consistent in the use of grammatical tense.
Natural time is something that can hardly apply to stories (an hour doesn’t last sixty minutes).


by: -using the fact that you are the authority during ’the performance’. -presenting yourself or your protagonist as a compelling personality. -giving the audience something to focus on. -keeping attention, including tone.

Being captivating means knowing a lot about your subject because only then can you satisfy the curiosity you have aroused.

Teach information, provide detailed information, but not too much because not everything that is true is necessarily interesting, especially not in repetition.

A story must have a focus/central focal point that repeatedly attracts and captivates attention.

Conciseness (something different from tone) is desired by the editor and reader, a matter of consultation and systems. Stories cannot be dragged out endlessly.

The value of surprise in a story cannot be overestimated. Surprises are highly desirable!

Find out what your most effective persona (narrative mask) is.
The tone makes the work specific to the writer.

Style is the visible trace of the craftsman in solving his problems. (variation, melody, coherence, precision, efficiency, clarity).
Narrative dialogue should resemble real dialogue, from which redundant hesitations, repetitions, and misspeaking have been removed. Do not mention who says what too often; it is irritating. Applies to thoughts as well.Do not write in dialect, especially not phonetically.


If you are stuck, look for possibilities to eliminate characters, shorten episodes, or create new connections.

The ending is THE place to make clear to the reader what you really want to convey (theme).

Leave the story for a few days once it’s done before revising it for tension, credibility, structure, etc.

The manuscript is usually submitted with a left margin of 4 to 5 cm and a right margin of 1 to 2 cm, with a line spacing of 2. Italicize sections of text. Copy.

3 things to avoid: -writing about what others are interested in. -imitation. -writing about characters who are not interested in themselves.
Briefly, if asked, when necessary.


is something everyone does according to their own rules.


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