David Ogilvy: “I hate rules.”


Homework: First, thoroughly study the product you are advertising. Check the competition’s advertisements and research consumer behavior.
Positioning: What does the product do, and who is it intended for?
Brand image: What brand image, reputation, and personality should the product carry? – product quality, emotional value.

Great find: Recognizable by 5 personal questions: Did I hold my breath when I first saw it? Would I have liked to come up with it myself? Is it unique? Does it fit perfectly into the advertising strategy? Will it remain useful for 30 years?

Product is the hero: A copywriter who is not interested in the product cannot write about it well; it’s boring.

Be trustworthy: Don’t quickly claim that the advertised product is better than the competition; instead, assert that it is a truly reliable and good product.

Repeat success: Advertisements do not always reach the same audience but a varying public.

Word of mouth: a godsend (almost impossible to control) when ads become cultural assets.

No committees: Some campaigns are too complicated as they try to satisfy too many diverse visions (from within and outside), which causes them to miss their target.

Ambition: Measure yourself against the immortals!
Pursuit of knowledge: Always try to know a lot; about the fundamentals as well as current trends.

Direct response: such ads are aimed at direct orders. Learn this craft and incorporate it into other campaigns too. Sales figures vs. creative costs.

Creativity as a cult: Originality is the most dangerous word, creativity is a bombastic term; ignore what you’ve heard, don’t believe the hype.

Sex: Nudity must be meaningful and relevant to the product; cosmetics, yes, cars, no.


Copywriters: curiosity about products, people, and advertising. Sense of humor. Work ethic. Talent to write interesting texts and natural dialogues. Ability to think visually. Ambition to create the best work of all time.

Creative director: Good psychologist. High standards. Efficient leadership. Strategic thinking. Interest in research. Knowledge of all media.

Knowledge of all goods and services. Have graphic and typographic knowledge. Work hard and fast. Don’t argue. Share success/failure credit. Make good presentations. Be a good teacher. Attract the right people. Have infectious enthusiasm for life. Write letters to agencies instead of calling: be concise and factual. Personal and direct. Propose the next step yourself.


Motivating people.

Hiring good people: select crown princes based on analytical minds, imagination, practical sense, and a helicopter view (ability to see things in a broader context). Never hire friends and never hire the client’s children.

Office politics: dismiss the worst intriguers, let them say to each other what they say about each other, no paper feuds, eat lunch together, don’t step on each other’s turf, no preferential treatment, no (office) politics.
Discipline works. Beware of alcoholics and addicts within the company.

Leadership: The wisest remarks about it come from Field Marshal Montgomery: must have infectious optimism and the determination to continue despite setbacks, must exude self-confidence even when unsure of the outcome. The ultimate litmus test for a great leader is the feeling you have when you leave a meeting with him, optimistic and confident. Put the company’s objectives in writing. Understand finances, even if you are not an expert.

Payment: The advertiser pays for the services they desire; no more or less. Each assignment must yield independent profit. Budget cuts for the client do not necessitate layoffs for you. Advise the client to advertise more if you can justify it.

Profit: Open branches in other cities and countries, buy the real estate, build reserves for difficult times.

5 tips: Never have two people do what one can do, don’t call your employees to your office, quick handling happens orally, use materials from the office, not the competition, never write complaint letters (potential clients).


To get clients, you must create good advertisements.
Stay away from clients with different standards than your own.
Present proposals in an excellent manner.
Beware of credit risks.
International clients require a multinational (established) agency.
Practice what you preach: advertise your own agency.


Needs no further explanation.


TV is currently the most important medium, but don’t forget print.
Headlines: Five times as many people read headlines as the text. If the headline isn’t strong, you lose 80% of readers.
Most effective headlines: Promise something to the people, provide news, useful information.

Use the brand name in the headline (80%).
Include the target audience in the headline if it is small.
Long headlines only when necessary.
Specifics have more impact than generalities.
Quotes increase memorability.
Bold headlines have a negative effect.
Avoid blind headlines.

Read: “Tested Advertising Methods” by John Caples.

Illustrations: Clearly define the subject, stimulate reader curiosity, don’t tell a story-use a packaging, show the end result (of the product), photos have more impact than drawings, familiar figures increase recall, keep illustrations simple, faces should not be larger than life-size, historical subjects are boring, your interest is not everyone’s interest, babies, animals, and sex photos still yield the most results, identification of the target audience with a photo, full-color is more expensive and better.

Short or long texts: A long text gives the impression that it is important, but it doesn’t necessarily have to be better. It also depends on the type of product/service.

Good copywriters/artists must first imitate to develop their own style.
Layouts: Readers first look at the photo, then the headline, then the text. Use this order in the layout. Use black on white for readability, not the other way around. A subheading of two lines between the headline and body copy increases reader interest. Start body copy with an initial letter, limit opening paragraphs (max. 11 words), subheadings stimulate the reader, short lines increase attention, highlight important paragraphs in bold or italics, help the reader with (reading) signs, number separate facts, determine the correct letter size, use white space.


Good commercials: humor, real-life situations, testimonials, demonstrations, problem-solving, talking heads, characters, argument, news, or emotion.

Less effective commercials: celebrity testimonials, cartoons, musical impressions.

16 tips: brand identification is crucial, show the packaging, make food move, use close-ups, start with the brand (visual surprise), if you have nothing to say, sing it, use sound effects, presenters on screen are better than background voices, project text over the image, avoid audiovisual clichés, use a large number of scenes without confusion, memory enhancers (repeat visual effects), demonstrate the product in use, fantasy – technique knows no bounds.

Radio: Mention the brand at the beginning of the commercial, repeat the brand name often, mention the benefits at the beginning, repeat the message. Create multiple spots to prevent boredom.


Advertising the company name, separate from products.
Reasons for corporate advertising: boosts employee morale, accelerates potential company acquisitions, creates a positive impression in the investment market.

Only long-term campaigns achieve the goal.
Avoid clichés (applicable to any company).
Spread the campaign across all media.
Acronyms are already abundant.

Corporate advertising that influences legislation based on social events is difficult, as consumer opinions must be won over on issues other than the product. Often, it is portrayed as trivial, greedy, or criminal. Some tips: try to simplify complicated issues as much as possible, approach the issue from the reader’s self-interest, disarm the audience with openness, show both sides of the issue, define the target audience precisely.


Understand the politics of the country being advertised.

Research what tourists expect from a country.

Challenge common misconceptions.

Advertise the unique aspects of a country.

Illustrate subjects that are unique to the country.

People’s dreams about certain countries can best be turned into actions through photos.

Holiday destinations are subject to fashion trends.


Industrial campaigns target people who buy products for the company, not for themselves.

Choose a clear and concrete promise that provides an important and specific benefit for the client. Avoid generalities.

Print media: testimonials, demonstrations, news, information, simple layout, promise in the headlines, long body copies are relevant here; potential customers read them.

TV: principles that apply to public TV commercials often apply to the business market as well: news, demonstrations, humor.
Efficiently position consumer goods (such as screws) against the competition. Highlight price advantages or reputation for quality or service.

Stimulate questions and responses, which often stem from specific needs/applications that result in purchase after getting information.
It is, therefore, useful to include both a coupon and the address again (for readers other than the subscriber).

Analyze responses as tangible results to advertisements through surveys among buyers and interviewing salespeople.


Address databases are easy to obtain.
It’s all about the text.

Every aspect of a mailing can be tested: product placement, price, payment terms, premiums, mailing format. Once a successful mailing is developed, keep it as a control for future mailings.

A successful mailing does not always depend on premiums, brochures, etc. New ideas can yield surprising results.

Print: The headline should contain the strongest, most eye-catching selling point. Good photos sell better. Long texts yield more results than short ones. Testimonials increase credibility. Include a coupon. Media choice is essential – switch media.

TV: Address the problem and how the product solves it. Offer a money-back guarantee. Mention the price. Demonstrate. Urgently request an order.
There is no correlation between memorability and purchasing behavior.


Is a good cause.


You compete by bringing better products to the market.


The quality of research will improve, leading to more knowledge about what works and what doesn’t. Creatives will learn to apply this knowledge, resulting in better sales results.

Advertising in newspapers and magazines will experience a new boom.
Advertising will contain more facts and fewer empty claims.
Roadside billboards will be abolished.

The flood of radio and TV commercials will be brought under control.
Governments will use more informative advertising, especially in the field of public health.

Advertising will play a role in the fight against overpopulation.
Candidates for political positions will no longer resort to dishonest advertising.

Foreign advertising will rapidly become better and more efficient.
Multinationals will increase their market share worldwide (outside of communist countries) and introduce more brands to the international market. The advertising campaigns will come from international advertising agencies but adapted to different cultures.

Direct response advertising will no longer remain a separate specialty but will be integrated into the work of general agencies.

Ways will be found to produce TV commercials more efficiently at a lower cost.

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